**Average growth approximation**: Assuming that two stocks have the same earnings growth, the one with a lower P/E is a better value. The P/E method is perhaps the most commonly used valuation method in the stock brokerage industry.^{} By using comparison firms, a target price/earnings (or P/E) ratio is selected for the company, and then the future earnings of the company are estimated. The valuation's fair price is simply estimated earnings times target P/E. This model is essentially the same model as Gordon's model, if k-g is estimated as the dividend payout ratio (D/E) divided by the target P/E ratio.

**Constant growth approximation**: The Gordon model or *Gordon's growth * is the best known of a class of discounted dividend models. It assumes that dividends will increase at a constant growth rate (less than the discount rate) forever. The valuation is given by the formula:

and the following table defines each symbol:

Symbol | Meaning | Units |
---|---|---|

estimated stock price | $ or € or £ | |

last dividend paid | $ or € or £ | |

discount rate | % | |

the growth rate of the dividends | % |